Cichlidae is a large family of fish containing more than 2,000 species. Many are found in pet stores, but with such a huge variety it can be hard to choose the right species for you.
Some of the most popular species, like Oscars, are also some of the largest and require huge amounts of space and filtration!
Best South American Cichlids For Beginners
1. German Blue Ram (Mikrogeophagus ramirezi)
German Blue Rams are native to the Orinoco River Basin. They are a dwarf cichlid, only getting 2″ long and a pair would fit perfectly in a 15 gallon.
Typically fish of this size would do fine in a 10 gallon, but Rams are territorial fish. They should always be housed either by themselves, female only, or 1 male per 1 female, unless proper space is provided for each pair to create their own territory. If you’re planning on doing two pairs, you’ll need about a 40-gallon tank to house them safely.
They are fairly indifferent to other species, save for any other territorial fish. Another concern is to avoid small shrimp, as these will easily become snacks. Otherwise, they can be kept with almost any South American tetra, any corydoras, plecos, loaches, rasboras, and less aggressive barbs.
They prefer to neutral to a very low pH level (4.0-7.0) and can tolerate slightly higher temperatures (75-82F).
They are carnivores are readily accept dry flaked food, freeze-dried food, and frozen foods like bloodworms, brine shrimp, or blackworms. A good variety and addition of brine shrimp will bring out their colors best.
Interestingly, if they are kept in a dark substrate they tend to be more colorful than if they’re kept on a light-colored substrate.
Image Source: Flickr
2. Cockatoo Cichlid (Apistogramma cacatuides)
There are many species in the genus Apistogramma, the males of which are often very colorful! Cockatoo cichlids are similar to Rams in their care.
They are highly territorial with each other Apistogrammas and similar fish like rams and kribs. Because of this, they should usually be the only fish of this type in the tank. Males (3″) get slightly larger than females (2″) and are much more colorful. These colors are used to attract females and advertise their health and virility.
They are micro predators and will gladly accept any frozen foods such as bloodworms, brine shrimp, blackworms, tubifex worms, etc. They will usually accept dry flakes or crisps unless wild-caught. They may take some conditioning to eat dry foods in that case.
They do pose a potential threat to small shrimp so care should be taken that they are not housed with any. Otherwise, they are unfussy about tank mates and not known fin nippers. Their aggression takes the form of chasing fish away from their “territory” or corner of the tank and not much else.
Native to much of the Amazon River Basin, water should have a neutral to soft pH (5.0-7.0) and be dimly lit. Floating plants are also much appreciated as is a low to moderate current.
Being territorial and larger than rams, a 20 gallon is the minimum tank size for a pair. Typical temperatures of 75-80F is ideal for this fish.
Image Source: Flickr
3. Severum (Heros serverus)
Severums are the largest on this list, but not the most aggressive! Despite being moderate-sized fish at 8-10″ long, they are not piscivores and do not typically attack other fish.
Native from the heart of the Amazon up to the bottom of Columbia, these fish are often found in slow relatively deep water dense with fallen trees and tree roots. They prefer a lower pH but will adapt to a range of 5.0-7.3.
They can be housed with most other South American fish from relatively small tetras like diamond tetras up to large predatory cichlids like Oscars or even fish like arowanas!
They are large enough to seldom be bullied but gentle enough that they will only attempt to eat the smallest fish. To house 1-2 severums you’ll want at least a 75-gallon tank.
These fish are omnivorous and should be fed dry flakes, pellets, frozen meaty foods like bloodworms and Mysis shrimp, plant-based foods such as frozen prepared omnivore, or herbivore mixes, and spirulina based pellets.
This is truly a unique fish that makes for a beautiful centerpiece in a tank of small fish.
4. Rainbow Cichlid (Herotilapia multispinosa)
Rainbow cichlids get their name because of their intense colors. Adults are even more beautiful than this juvenile! They are native to Nicaragua down to Costa Rica, technically making this a Central American species.
They are relatively small, getting 6-7″ long. They are not particularly aggressive and can be kept in with virtually any South American tetra, Loricariidae catfish, barbs, even loaches.
They are omnivores with a preference to algae and should be fed mostly spirulina enhanced foods but will also eat frozen bloodworms, brine shrimp, etc. Blanched spinach and even algae discs are good foods for variety.
A 30-gallon tank is suitable for 1-2 and some small tank mates. In the wild temperatures can get quite high but they tolerate anything from 78-81F and a higher pH range than the rest of the list, falling anywhere between 7.0-8.0.
5. Blue Acara (Aequidens pulcher)
And the last on our list, Blue Acaras. This is a photo of a juvenile, adults develop a darker coloration that is easier to consider “blue”. They are native to Trinidad and Tobago, as well as Venezuela.
They are generally unaggressive species, however, they are active diggers and can destroy many live plants. Reaching a relatively small 4-5″ a pair or single adult can be housed in a 20-gallon tank with small tank mates.
They can be kept with most fish including corydoras, Loricariidae catfish, and any tetras too large to fit in their mouth.
Their water should be a standard 75-80F with a pH of 7.0-7.8. Ideally a tank with a sandy substrate that they can easily manipulate. They readily accept any foods and should be fed mostly meaty things like pellets, bloodworms, blackworms, etc.
These fish are widely considered excellent beginner cichlids and are generally hardy.